A fern is one of the members of a group of about 10,560 known extant species of vascular plants. They reproduce via spores. Like other non-flowering plants, they have neither seeds nor flowers. Here we have rounded up with some interesting facts about fern, fern facts. Let’s check out and get information about fern.
Fern facts for kids
1. Ferns are a very old group of plants. They first appeared on Earth in the middle Devonian Era about 360 million years ago, just before the Carboniferous Era. Most of the modern fern families we see today first appeared in the Late Cretaceous about 45 or 50 million years ago – during the age of the dinosaurs!
Depending on the species, fern develops as miniature herbaceous plant or as tall tree. Smallest fern is only 2 to 3 inches high. Largest fern can grow 30 feet high into the air.
Ferns have fibrous root that can easily absorb water and all nutrients required for successful growth.
Leaves of ferns are called fronds. They are green and have feathery structure. Leaves perform photosynthesis (production of food from the carbon dioxide and water, with a help of sun).
Ferns do not develop flowers and seed. They reproduce via miniature cells called spores.
Spores are produced in the structures called sporangia. They can be recognized as row of brown patches on the bottom side of the leaves. Spores can be reddish, brownish, yellow or black in color.
Reproduction of ferns takes place in two morphologically different phases known as sporophyte and gametophyte. Sporophyte generation can be easily recognized because it looks like typical fern.
Sporophyte produces spores that grow into heart-shaped structure called gametophyte. Gametophyte produces male and female reproductive organs.
Ferns live in the moist habitats because they require water for successful fertilization. After merging of the sperm and egg cells, new fern develops and cycle starts all over again.
Ferns are able to absorb nitrogen from the air. Because of this feature, some farmers use ferns as natural fertilizers on the rice fields.